Oct - 30 2012 | By

Penerjemahan adalah aktivitas keilmuan bahasa yang sangat dibutuhkan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Di mulai dari masyarakat tingkat biasa sampai pejabat tinggi negara. Perannya tidak bisa dianggap sebelah mata, walaupun tidak semua orang mengenalnya.


Nida dan Taber (1982:12) mengemukakan bahwa penerjemahan adalah  “consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style”. Secara global bisa dimaknai bahwa menerjemahkan adalah mengolah suatu pesan dari bahasa sumber untuk bisa diterima kedalam bahasa sasaran, sedekat dan sealamiah mungkin, serta berterima bagi pengguna bahasa sasaran.

 Menerjemahkan adalah suatu aktivitas yang menarik dan penuh tantangan. Kenapa? karena menerjemahkan adalah sebuah proses memindahkan makna dari satu bahasa ke bahasa yang lain dan dalam prosesnya akan memerlukan waktu dan kemampuan khusus.  Disamping itu pula diharapkan nantinya, hasil dari penerjemahan bisa berterima bagi user atau pembaca


 Dalam melakukan proses penerjemahan tidak dilepaskan dari peran penerjemah. Penerjemah adalah pelaksana atau orang yang melakukan kegiatan dan proses penerjemahan. Dalam melakukan aktivitas tersebut, penerjemah adalah kunci atau filter. Dia memproses suatu obyek yang menggunakan satu bahasa untuk dipindahkan kebahasa lain  dengan tujuan agar pesan yang terkandung dalam bahasa asal bisa ditangkap oleh pengguna bahasa sasaran.

Dalam suatu perkuliahan, Prof Nababan, Guru Besar Ilmu penerjemahan Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta mengatakan bahwa, penerjemahan bukan suatu proses yang gampang dialam yang serba canggih sekarang ini. Tidak bisa hanya menggunakan transtool, lalu diklik dan langsung mendapatkan hasil terjemahan. Tapi penerjemahan adalah suatu proses keilmuan yang ilmiah dan bisa dipertanggungjawabkan hasilnya.

Penting untuk diketahui bahwa, dalam melakukan proses menerjemahkan, kemampuan individu penerjemah sangat menunjang dan penting. Tidaklah cukup dengan hanya bisa berbahasa asing (bilingual)saja tapi dia dituntut memiliki kompetensi bilingual,  yakni  sebuah kompetensi bahasa yang menitik beratkan pada unsur intinsik dan ekstrinsik pembentuk bahasa.

Kemampuan memindahkan makna dari teks sumber ke dalam teks sasaran atau ketika terjadi dialog sangat diperlukan dalam penerjemahan. Hal ini penting untuk keberterimaan dan pemahaman hasil penerjemahan. Nababan (2008:11) mengatakan bahwa Para pakar penerjemahan mempunyai pendapat yang sama bahwa penerjemah harus mempunyai pengetahuan agar mereka dapat menerjemahkan. Penerjemah harus memiliki pengetahuan deklaratif (pengetahuan tentang penerjemahan) dan pengetahuan prosedural (tahu cara menerjemahkan) (Schaffner & Adab, 2000; Anderson, 1983, dalam PACTE,2000). Kedua jenis pengetahuan itu mendasari kompetensi yang digunakan sebagai istilah yang membawahi keterampilan dan unsur-unsur keahlian. Secara garis besar bisa dikatakan bahwa, Nababan dan banyak pakar penerjemahan lain menekankan  perlunya kompetensi  penerjemahan bagi seorang penerjemah.

Neubert (2000:6) didalam Nababan (2008:11)  mengidentifkasikan lima parameter kualitatif kompetensi penerjemahan, yaitu kompetensi kebahasaan, kompetensi tekstual, kompetensi bidang ilmu, kompetensi kultural, dan kompetensi transfer.

            Kompetensi dibidang bahasa adalah hal mendasar dalam praktek penerjemahan, karena penerjemahan adalah sebuah proses penerjemahan. Kompetensi  tekstual adalah sebuah kompetensi untuk memahami sebuah teks. Kompetensi bidang ilmu adalah penguasaan dan keahlian yang sempurna terhadap teks yang dikuasai. Untuk kompetensi ini, penerjemah tidak harus menguasainya. Mereka bisa berkonsultasi denga ahli keilmuan tersebut untuk keberterimaan penerjemahan. Kompetensi kultural dalam penerjemahan mutlak diperlukan karena ketika menerjemahkan, penerjemah harus menguasai budaya bahasa sasaran dan bahasa sumber dengan baik.


Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. De;partemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayan.1997

Nababan, M.R.Teori Menerjemahkan. 2008. Pustaka Pelajar.Yogyakarta

Putra Yadnya, Ida Bagus. Impikasi budaya dalam penerjemahan.  Pidato Pengukuhan Jabatan Guru Besar Tetap Dalam Bidang Ilmu Linguistik/Penerjemahan Pada fakultas sastra universitas udayana Tanggal 29 April 2006


M.R. Nababan, Prof. Drs., M.Ed., M.A., Ph.D. Kompetensi Penerjemahan Dan Dampaknya

Pada kualitas terjemahan. Pidato Pengukuhan Guru Besar Penerjemahan Pada Fakultas Sastra dan Seni Rupa Universitas Sebelas Maret Pada Tanggal 19 April 2008

Newmark, Peter. A Textbook of Translation. 1982. Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press

Suryawinata, Zuhridin. Translation Bahasa teori & Penuntun Praktis Menerjemahkan. Kanisius.2000. Yogyakata



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